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CRC CARE's technical report series comprises a comprehensive collection of work carried out by CRC CARE and its partners. This work is done to address technical issues of importance to industry and government.

The purpose of this guidance is therefore to illustrate how flux concepts, tools and measurements can be used to assess and manage groundwater contamination, including engaging with regulators and other stakeholders.

CRC CARE Technical Report 37: Flux-based groundwater assessment and management

The purpose of this guidance is therefore to illustrate how flux concepts, tools and measurements can be used to assess and manage groundwater contamination, including engaging with regulators and other stakeholders.

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In line with international progress, there has been an increasing acceptance in recent years by contaminated sites practitioners in Australia of the usefulness of mass flux concepts for the management of groundwater contamination. However, there is no nationally consistent guidance or methodology on how mass flux or mass discharge estimates may be used to assess and manage groundwater contamination, or the endpoints that should apply. CRC CARE has therefore commissioned this user guide for the better measurement and use of mass flux and mass discharge in the management of groundwater contamination.

The purpose of this guidance is therefore to illustrate how flux concepts, tools and measurements can be used to assess and manage groundwater contamination, including engaging with regulators and other stakeholders.

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CRC CARE Technical Report 36: Guidance for the assessment, remediation and management of MTBE

This document provides guidance in relation to the assessment, remediation and management of MTBE contaminated groundwater. MTBE will migrate rapidly from a source, through the soil profile, to groundwater and/or surface water. MTBE is degraded rapidly in surface waters, but it is relatively stable in groundwater. Once MTBE reaches groundwater it can migrate at almost the same speed as groundwater flow, given its solubility in water, and therefore can travel rapidly in the sub-surface.

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This document provides guidance in relation to the assessment, remediation and management of MTBE contaminated groundwater. MTBE will migrate rapidly from a source, through the soil profile, to groundwater and/or surface water. MTBE is
degraded rapidly in surface waters, but it is relatively stable in groundwater. Once MTBE reaches groundwater it can migrate at almost the same speed as groundwater flow, given its solubility in water, and therefore can travel rapidly in the sub-surface.

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Technical Report 35 front cover

CRC CARE Technical Report 35: Value-based land remediation: Improved decision-making for contaminated land

This report provides regulators and remediation professionals with a summary of research into how remediation institutions interact with the values held by various stakeholders, as reflected in site remediation decision-making processes, and hence the outcomes of these decision processes. Using case studies (three from Australia, one from Fiji), it highlights how the findings might be incorporated into current and future site remediation practice.

CRC CARE Technical Report 34: A practitioner’s guide for the analysis, management and remediation of LNAPL

This report is intended as a practical guide to LNAPL remediation in Australia and to accompany CRC CARE Technical Report no. 18, Selecting and assessing strategies for remediating LNAPL in soils and aquifers.

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This guide draws on the wealth of literature on LNAPL remediation globally, and on the documented experience of remediation practitioners in Australia, Europe and North America, where many of the approaches, terms and technologies discussed in this document have been developed.

It is aimed at industry project managers, environmental consultants, remediation practitioners, owners and operators of contaminated sites, and state and territory regulators in Australia – that is, those with an interest in the effective, efficient and sustainable remediation of LNAPL contaminated sites. The guide provides a practical step-by-step approach to site characterisation, remedial decision making, technology selection and implementation of remediation in an Australian context.

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Tech Report 33 - Lidar - front cover

CRC CARE Technical Report 33: Advanced Lidar Port Hedland dust study

This study confirmed that a Coherent Doppler Lidar system for monitoring dust emissions and wind fields can be used to identify dust emission sources, track dust plumes, and resolve the fine-scale wind field dynamics responsible for dust transportation and community exposure. The technology can potentially be used for multiple applications at ports and mine sites, including routine monitoring, health risk and occupational safety studies, validation of modelling, and evaluating dust mitigation strategies.

CRC CARE Technical Report 32: Development of guidance for contaminants of emerging concern

Emerging contaminants are a concern for contaminated site assessment, management and remediation. The first tier priority contaminants that were identified at a February 2012 forum were perfluorinated chemicals PFOS and PFOA, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), weathered hydrocarbons and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE).

CRC CARE Technical Report 31: Flux-based criteria for management of groundwater

This report reviews guidance, documents, tools and industry practice relating to the application of mass flux-based criteria for the management of groundwater contamination. It aims to determine where further work should be carried out to realise the advantages of mass flux-based assessment of groundwater contamination, and to identify the most reliable and promising methods for further research and application.

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This report reviews guidance, documents, tools and industry practice relating to the application of mass flux-based criteria for the management of groundwater contamination. It aims to determine where further work should be carried out to realise the advantages of mass flux-based assessment of groundwater contamination, and to identify the most reliable and promising methods for further research and application.


This report has a focus on Australian regulations and practice; however, similar approaches to the assessment and management of contaminated groundwater are applied internationally and the findings and recommendations of this report can be expected to have general applicability.

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Technical Report 30 - front cover

CRC CARE Technical Report 30: Landfill futures

This report looks at the past and present roles of landfills in Australian waste management and considers the requirements for a sustainable future. The research used a test case to apply an integrated resource planning model to waste. The results suggest that disposal to landfill may be an expensive and less preferred option compared to others, in many cases, but still have a role to play in specific contexts where the costs of other options are higher.

CRC CARE Technical Report 29: Environmental impact of priority contaminants - A literature review

In order to identify emergent and priority contaminants and to prioritise work on them, CRC CARE conducted a workshop in February 2012 with regulators and end users. The outcomes of the workshop, together with information from a matrix pre-population exercise prior to the workshop, have resulted in a list of contaminants classified in three categories: ‘first-tier priority’, ‘second-tier priority’ and ‘watching brief’. The table below summarises the outcomes in relation to contaminants in the first-tier category. The aim of this project was to undertake a literature review on these first-tier priority contaminants in order to identify data gaps (e.g. toxicity, remediation technologies) for future CRC CARE research programs. This information is viewed as critical for all research programs within CRC CARE and is paramount for the development of guidance for these stakeholder prioritised contaminants.

CRC CARE Technical Report 28: Identification of existing guidance for a National Remediation Framework

In 2011 CRC CARE established the National Remediation Framework Steering Group (NRFSG) comprising high level representatives from government, industry, academia, and the community to provide strategic advice and oversee the development of the National Remediation Framework (NRF).

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The Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE) is Australia's leading science-based partnership in assessing, preventing and remediating contamination of soil, water and air.
Currently, CRC CARE is developing a national framework for the remediation of contaminated sites in Australia. In 2011 CRC CARE established the National Remediation Framework Steering Group (NRFSG) comprising high level representatives from government, industry, academia, and the community to provide strategic advice and oversee the development of the National Remediation Framework (NRF).


In developing the framework CRC CARE wishes to build upon what is already available, with the aim of developing a ‘harmonised guidance on the practicalities of cleaning up contaminated sites’. To that end, CRC CARE has developed a number of projects to identify existing frameworks and guidance that may be incorporated into the NRF.
This project is part of the second phase of development, with the objectives of:

  • identifying existing guidance on site remediation (Australian and international) that may be suitable for adoption or adaption into the NRF
  • reviewing the guidance to assess whether it meets the needs of the proposed framework, and provide recommendations for adoption/adaption, focusing on the following areas:
  • development of remediation and management plans
  • implementation of remediation plans
  • post remediation considerations, and
  • conducting a data gap assessment to determine whether

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