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CRC CARE's technical report series comprises a comprehensive collection of work carried out by CRC CARE and its partners. This work is done to address technical issues of importance to industry and government.

Technical Report 40_Silica Gel Clean-up_front cover

CRC CARE Technical Report 40: Weathered Petroleum Hydrocarbons (Silica Gel Clean-up)

This technical report has been prepared to review the available information on the presence of polar metabolite compounds in samples collected from weathered petroleum hydrocarbon–impacted soil and groundwater. The aim is to identify an appropriate silica gel clean up (SGC) method for removing these compounds from the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons, and to provide guidance on interpretation of the data collected, to ensure that risks to human health and the environment are adequately protected.

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Analytical methodology for silica gel clean-up of soil and water extracts is proposed in this report. The methodology follows closely with NEPM Schedule B3 (NEPC, 1999 amended 2013c), that is analysis of semi-volatile hydrocarbons (TRH >C10 to C40) using solvent extraction followed by determination by gas chromatography–flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). The NEPM describes an optional SGC procedure but more detail is required. Appendix C details two procedures for SGC which are in common use in environmental testing laboratories – in situ and ex situ. These procedures have been adapted from CCME 2001, Reference Method for the Canada-Wide Standard for Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil – Tier 1 Method, and Addendum 1. The in-situ method involves adding silica to the extract to form a ‘slurry’. This silica then interacts and absorbs polar analytes. In the ex-situ method, the extract is applied to a silica gel glass column which removes polars from the extract. The extracts are then analysed by GC-FID. Advantages and disadvantages of both techniques are discussed in this report.

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CRC CARE Technical Report 39: Risk-based remediation and management guidance for benzo(a)pyrene

This report provides guidance on the risk-based management and remediation of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-contaminated sites. It provides information and a framework that will assist practitioners, regulators and site owners in effectively managing and remediating B(a)P-contaminated soil and groundwater.

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In particular, the guidance has the potential to promote best practice and reduce costs, uncertainty, and the risk to human health and the environment. Consideration has been given to accounting for site-specific variables such as bioavailability and bioaccumulation, and for providing more reliable screening criteria for determining when ecological effects might occur.

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CRC CARE Technical Report 38 Part 5: Assessment management and remediation for PFOS and PFOA – Management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA

CRC CARE has developed risk-based guidance for the assessment, management and remediation of site contamination for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) belong to a large group of compounds called per- and poly- fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). PFAS are highly persistent, bioaccumulative and potentially toxic to humans and the environment.

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The purpose of the CRC CARE guidance is to provide a consistent, risk-based approach to the assessment, management and remediation of PFAS contamination in Australia. The guidance includes:

  • human health screening levels (HSLs) and ecological screening levels (ESLs) PFOS and PFOA contamination in soil, groundwater, surface water and sediment.

  • a framework and discussion regarding the application of these screening values.

  • a risk-based approach to the management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA contamination.

The guidance comprises a package of five related but stand-alone documents, which are all available for download separately here:

  • Part 1 – Background

  • Part 2 – Health screening levels

  • Part 3 – Ecological screening Levels

  • Part 4 – Application of PFOS and PFOA HSLs and ESLs

  • Part 5 – Management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA.

Additional resources are available for download below, and more information can be found on the PFOS & PFOA guidelines page of this site:

NOTE: 

The CRC CARE guidance should be regarded as both draft and interim, particularly in relation to health-based screening values. If revised health reference values are endorsed by enHealth or another major Australian health-based agency, the health-derived values in CRC CARE’s guidance will be updated accordingly and the guidance re-issued.

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CRC CARE Technical Report 38 Part 4: Assessment management and remediation for PFOS and PFOA – Application of ESLs and HSLs

CRC CARE has developed risk-based guidance for the assessment, management and remediation of site contamination for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) belong to a large group of compounds called per- and poly- fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). PFAS are highly persistent, bioaccumulative and potentially toxic to humans and the environment.

+ Read More

The purpose of the CRC CARE guidance is to provide a consistent, risk-based approach to the assessment, management and remediation of PFAS contamination in Australia. The guidance includes:

  • human health screening levels (HSLs) and ecological screening levels (ESLs) PFOS and PFOA contamination in soil, groundwater, surface water and sediment.

  • a framework and discussion regarding the application of these screening values.

  • a risk-based approach to the management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA contamination.

The guidance comprises a package of five related but stand-alone documents, which are all available for download separately here:

  • Part 1 – Background

  • Part 2 – Health screening levels

  • Part 3 – Ecological screening Levels

  • Part 4 – Application of PFOS and PFOA HSLs and ESLs

  • Part 5 – Management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA.

Additional resources are available for download below, and more information can be found on the PFOS & PFOA guidelines page of this site:

NOTE: 

The CRC CARE guidance should be regarded as both draft and interim, particularly in relation to health-based screening values. If revised health reference values are endorsed by enHealth or another major Australian health-based agency, the health-derived values in CRC CARE’s guidance will be updated accordingly and the guidance re-issued.

- Read Less

CRC CARE Technical Report 38 Part 3: Assessment management and remediation for PFOS and PFOA – Ecological screening levels

CRC CARE has developed risk-based guidance for the assessment, management and remediation of site contamination for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) belong to a large group of compounds called per- and poly- fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). PFAS are highly persistent, bioaccumulative and potentially toxic to humans and the environment.

+ Read More

The purpose of the CRC CARE guidance is to provide a consistent, risk-based approach to the assessment, management and remediation of PFAS contamination in Australia. The guidance includes:

  • human health screening levels (HSLs) and ecological screening levels (ESLs) PFOS and PFOA contamination in soil, groundwater, surface water and sediment.

  • a framework and discussion regarding the application of these screening values.

  • a risk-based approach to the management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA contamination.

The guidance comprises a package of five related but stand-alone documents, which are all available for download separately here:

  • Part 1 – Background

  • Part 2 – Health screening levels

  • Part 3 – Ecological screening Levels

  • Part 4 – Application of PFOS and PFOA HSLs and ESLs

  • Part 5 – Management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA.

Additional resources are available for download below, and more information can be found on the PFOS & PFOA guidelines page of this site:

NOTE: 

The CRC CARE guidance should be regarded as both draft and interim, particularly in relation to health-based screening values. If revised health reference values are endorsed by enHealth or another major Australian health-based agency, the health-derived values in CRC CARE’s guidance will be updated accordingly and the guidance re-issued.

- Read Less

CRC CARE Technical Report 38 Part 2: Assessment management and remediation for PFOS and PFOA – Health screening levels

CRC CARE has developed risk-based guidance for the assessment, management and remediation of site contamination for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) belong to a large group of compounds called per- and poly- fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). PFAS are highly persistent, bioaccumulative and potentially toxic to humans and the environment.

+ Read More

The purpose of the CRC CARE guidance is to provide a consistent, risk-based approach to the assessment, management and remediation of PFAS contamination in Australia. The guidance includes:

  • human health screening levels (HSLs) and ecological screening levels (ESLs) PFOS and PFOA contamination in soil, groundwater, surface water and sediment.

  • a framework and discussion regarding the application of these screening values.

  • a risk-based approach to the management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA contamination.

The guidance comprises a package of five related but stand-alone documents, which are all available for download separately here:

  • Part 1 – Background

  • Part 2 – Health screening levels

  • Part 3 – Ecological screening Levels

  • Part 4 – Application of PFOS and PFOA HSLs and ESLs

  • Part 5 – Management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA.

Additional resources are available for download below, and more information can be found on the PFOS & PFOA guidelines page of this site:

NOTE: 

The CRC CARE guidance should be regarded as both draft and interim, particularly in relation to health-based screening values. If revised health reference values are endorsed by enHealth or another major Australian health-based agency, the health-derived values in CRC CARE’s guidance will be updated accordingly and the guidance re-issued.

- Read Less

CRC CARE Technical Report 38 Part 1: Assessment management and remediation for PFOS and PFOA – background

CRC CARE has developed risk-based guidance for the assessment, management and remediation of site contamination for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) belong to a large group of compounds called per- and poly- fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). PFAS are highly persistent, bioaccumulative and potentially toxic to humans and the environment.

+ Read More

The purpose of the CRC CARE guidance is to provide a consistent, risk-based approach to the assessment, management and remediation of PFAS contamination in Australia. The guidance includes:

  • human health screening levels (HSLs) and ecological screening levels (ESLs) PFOS and PFOA contamination in soil, groundwater, surface water and sediment.

  • a framework and discussion regarding the application of these screening values.

  • a risk-based approach to the management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA contamination.

The guidance comprises a package of five related but stand-alone documents, which are all available for download separately here:

  • Part 1 – Background

  • Part 2 – Health screening levels

  • Part 3 – Ecological screening Levels

  • Part 4 – Application of PFOS and PFOA HSLs and ESLs

  • Part 5 – Management and remediation of PFOS and PFOA.

Additional resources are available for download below, and more information can be found on the PFOS & PFOA guidelines page of this site:

NOTE: 

The CRC CARE guidance should be regarded as both draft and interim, particularly in relation to health-based screening values. If revised health reference values are endorsed by enHealth or another major Australian health-based agency, the health-derived values in CRC CARE’s guidance will be updated accordingly and the guidance re-issued.

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The purpose of this guidance is therefore to illustrate how flux concepts, tools and measurements can be used to assess and manage groundwater contamination, including engaging with regulators and other stakeholders.

CRC CARE Technical Report 37: Flux-based groundwater assessment and management

The purpose of this guidance is therefore to illustrate how flux concepts, tools and measurements can be used to assess and manage groundwater contamination, including engaging with regulators and other stakeholders.

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In line with international progress, there has been an increasing acceptance in recent years by contaminated sites practitioners in Australia of the usefulness of mass flux concepts for the management of groundwater contamination. However, there is no nationally consistent guidance or methodology on how mass flux or mass discharge estimates may be used to assess and manage groundwater contamination, or the endpoints that should apply. CRC CARE has therefore commissioned this user guide for the better measurement and use of mass flux and mass discharge in the management of groundwater contamination.

The purpose of this guidance is therefore to illustrate how flux concepts, tools and measurements can be used to assess and manage groundwater contamination, including engaging with regulators and other stakeholders.

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CRC CARE Technical Report 36: Guidance for the assessment, remediation and management of MTBE

This document provides guidance in relation to the assessment, remediation and management of MTBE contaminated groundwater. MTBE will migrate rapidly from a source, through the soil profile, to groundwater and/or surface water. MTBE is degraded rapidly in surface waters, but it is relatively stable in groundwater. Once MTBE reaches groundwater it can migrate at almost the same speed as groundwater flow, given its solubility in water, and therefore can travel rapidly in the sub-surface.

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This document provides guidance in relation to the assessment, remediation and management of MTBE contaminated groundwater. MTBE will migrate rapidly from a source, through the soil profile, to groundwater and/or surface water. MTBE is
degraded rapidly in surface waters, but it is relatively stable in groundwater. Once MTBE reaches groundwater it can migrate at almost the same speed as groundwater flow, given its solubility in water, and therefore can travel rapidly in the sub-surface.

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Technical Report 35 front cover

CRC CARE Technical Report 35: Value-based land remediation: Improved decision-making for contaminated land

This report provides regulators and remediation professionals with a summary of research into how remediation institutions interact with the values held by various stakeholders, as reflected in site remediation decision-making processes, and hence the outcomes of these decision processes. Using case studies (three from Australia, one from Fiji), it highlights how the findings might be incorporated into current and future site remediation practice.

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